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South Africa
CALL 083 379 6996
+27 (0)11 395 3133

Nimbus Water office hours are Monday - Friday
08:00 - 17:00 local South Africa time (GMT+2).

 Water Filtration Solutions & Design Criteria

Typical Nimbus Water Technologies, South Africa, Water Purification Systems and water filtration & treatment technology for specialised applications in Domestic, Commercial and Industrial source water filtration and water treatment. Including borehole water, river or dam water.
Talk to Nimbus Water South Africa, regarding selecting the correct water treatment technology for your specific water treatment, or water purification application, be it influent, or effluent, grey water, wastewater, municipal water, river and dam water, or borehole water.
Water purification technology is on offer from Nimbus Water in South Africa, from basic filtration, treatment of hard water lime scale and dissolved iron, to advanced non chemical purification processes, including Ozone, Ultra Violet and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Technology.

Water Softeners - Lime Scale Technology and Solutions

Water softening solutions, or treatment of lime scale, are available, be it through cation exchange, or a chemical free catalytic conditioner, will either remove, or change the structure in the water to treat the hardness minerals calcium and magnesium, which is the cause of scale build-up, or also known as lime scale in water pipes and plumbing fixtures. Nimbus Water Technologies has a solution for lime scale treatment.

Lime Scale Water Treatment

A water softener is an ion exchanger. It is not a water filter.
Hard water—water with a high calcium/magnesium content—enters the softener through the “In” port indicated by the green arrow. It passes through the control valve and into the main tank, where it goes from top to bottom through a bed of resin that “softens” it.

Water Lime Scale Treatment - Ion Exchange Diagram

A water softener reduces hardness in water by removing the calcium and magnesium ions in the water, and replacing them with sodium ions, which do not lead to any form of scale build-up or precipitation.
A standard water softener consists of 2 vessels. The first vessel contains a sodium coated zeolite ion exchange resin. Water passes through the resin vessel under pressure, flowing over the softener resin, which attracts the calcium and magnesium ions to its surface, exchanging them for sodium ions. Once the softener resin has reached the end of its service cycle and can hold no more calcium and magnesium, the water softener automatically starts a regeneration cycle, drawing a solution of brine from the second vessel, the brine tank, into the softener resin vessel. The brine solution washes the softener resin, causing the calcium and magnesium ions to be washed to drain, and the resin to be regenerated with sodium ions.
Ion exchange, for water hardness, or lime scale treatment is THE ONLY WHO & NSF approved technology.

Nimbus Water - Water Softening-Lime Scale System

A water softener is an ion exchanger. It is not a water filter.

Hard water, or borehole water with a high calcium/magnesium content, enters the softener through the "In" port indicated by the green arrow. It passes through the control valve and into the main tank, where it goes from top to bottom through a bed of resin that "softens" it. The resin consists of specially manufactured beads that have been saturated with sodium ions. "Softening" occurs as the hardness minerals, the calcium and magnesium ions, in the water attach themselves to the resin and are "exchanged" for sodium, which goes into the water in their place.

The softened water then enters the long center tube, called a riser or a "dip tube", via the strainer basket in the bottom of the tank and passes upward through the riser. The water then exits the softener via the control valve (blue arrow) and is sent to the home.

When the resin becomes saturated by hardness minerals, it no longer has the ability to soften water. The water softener then automatically goes into regeneration. The regeneration process is initiated by a timer or a meter, depending on the type of softener. More of this below. By this process the hardness minerals are washed down the drain (via a drain tube not shown in the diagram), and the resin bed is rinsed, resettled, and recharged with sodium. It is now again ready to soften water.

The regeneration process is accomplished by passing very salty water from the brine tank through the resin. The brine solution is so concentrated that its high sodium content displaces the calcium and and magnesium ions on the resin.

The brine tank must remain filled with softener salt at all times so that it can regenerate the softening resin again and again.

Water Filtration Room with Water Softening System

Picking the right water softener is an important step in the purification of your water. To understand sizing, it is best to understand how it all works. What a water softener does is trade "hard" minerals in water for "soft" minerals in water. The typical trade is as calcium (hard mineral) enter a water softener it is traded for sodium (soft mineral). Inside a water softener are a bunch of chemical magnets called "ion exchange resin". These little chemical magnets do the trading. The more chemical magnets you have in a softener, the higher the capacity is. Capacity is the amount of liters/kg’s a softener will purify before you need to recharge (regenerate) it. Capacity of water softeners are measured in "grains" or "grain removal". This is a chemical measurement that has been used a long time. One "grain per liter" is equal to 4.275 parts per million. The average water has 4-5 grains of hardness per liter. You can calculate the exact amount of hardness you have in your water using a water softener test kit. To calculate how much water you need to purify, multiply the number of people in your house by 300.

Water Softeners for Hard Water & Lime Scale

Water softeners either remove, or restructure the hardness minerals/salts calcium and magnesium.

The most common processes to soften water is to use a cation exchange water softener, or chemical free water conditioner. The options will depend on the water hardness CaC03 and to correctly size the water softening, or lime scale removal system, plus correctly calculate the softening media loading, Nimbus Water will need the CaC03 hardness. This is done by a laboratory and can assist to refer a laboratory service to assist.
If the above process to treat lime scale, or also often referred to as "salty" hard water, the system will not be effective and the result is, lime scale break-through.
Nimbus Water will assist to CORRECTLY deal with lime scale water hardness.

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Rotten egg odour from water caused by dissolved hydrogen sulfide gas

hydrogen sulphide gas the result of sulphate reducing bacteria in mainly raw untreated borehole, river, or dam water.


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Nimbus Water offer water treatment solutions for in-fluent source water & effluent waste water, borehole water treatment, rain water harvesting, including municipal water back-up & Jo-Jo water storage systems & solutions. Nimbus Water offers a range of standard to specific designed point of use, or point of entry (whole home or building) inline water treatment systems.

Andre Pretorius

Director, Technical & Sales
Andre Pretorius

  •   15 Year Experience
  •   Designed for Application
  •   Proven Treatment Processes
  •   Latest Technology
  •   WHO Standards
  •   Turn Key Projects
  •   Cost Effective Systems

South Africa
CALL 083 379 6996
+27 (0)11 395 3133
Nimbus Water (Pty) Ltd
No 5 Newton Road
Hughes Industrial Park Area
Boksburg, 1709
South Africa
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